tricholoma equestre toxicity

list—Tricholoma equestre (also referred to as Tricholoma flavovirens)—can be harmful, and its excessive consumption can lead to health problems [1 –7]. This may potentially be due to the conditions under which the mushrooms were stored prior to the experiments (–20 °C for 1 year) or by intraspecific differences between laboratory mice strains. Such information would be valuable because, as noted in the “Morphological and molecular identification” section, specimens previously identified as T. equestre var. However, several outbreaks of delayed severe rhabdomyolysis, which is fatal in some cases due to kidney failure, following the repeated consumption of the species occurred in France and Poland in approximately 2000. In profuse sweating without fever, and respiratory insufficiency oc-curred. Recent molecular analyses (based on the internal transcript spacer (ITS)1/5.8S/ITS2 region of the nuclear ribosomal unit and the 5′ part of the mitochondrial cox1 gene) support the complex phylogeny of T. equestre, and provide further evidence that T. equestre, T. flavovirens and T. auratum from various geographical regions (Europe, North America, and Asia) are all representatives of a single species and should formally be considered as T. equestre (Deng & Yao, 2005a; Horton, 2002; Kalamees, 2001; Moukha et al., 2013). Collecting wild mushrooms for consumption is, however, associated with a risk of poisoning arising from the ingestion of toxic species, often of similar morphological appearance to those considered as edible. The content of K, Fe, and Zn is higher than generally observed while the content of P and Se is lower (Table 1). An emerging group of pollutants is represented by rare earth elements (REEs). . A total of 21 cases which involved rhabdomyolysis (without renal injury) have been documented. Strikingly, the report by Bedry et al., 2001 provides no objective confirmation that T. equestre was actually consumed by the described subjects (for example, identification of Tricholoma spores in gastric content). The only evidence for concluding that T. equestre triggered rhabdomyolysis was based upon the in vivo experiments which were discussed in the previous section of this paper. EMG: proximal thigh muscles without peripheral‐nerve involvement. Legislation and guidelines on wild mushroom commerce reveal different consumption behaviour in European countries, Commercial harvests of edible mushrooms from the forests of the Pacific Northwest United States, issues, management, and monitoring for sustainability, Rare‐earth elements in human colostrum milk, Rare earth elements in the soil environment, Mushroom nutraceuticals for improved nutrition and better human health, A review, Functional foods based on extracts or compounds derived from mushrooms, Comparative study on free amino acid composition of wild edible mushroom species, Fatty acid composition of wild edible mushrooms species, A comparative study, Contents of carboxylic acids and two phenolics and antioxidant activity of dried Portuguese wild edible mushrooms, The role of polyphenols,‐carotene, and lycopene in the antioxidative action of the extracts of dried, edible mushrooms, The risk of high mercury accumulation in edible mushrooms cultivated on contaminated substrates, Multielemental analysis of fruit bodies of three cultivated commercial, Mechanism of statin‐induced rhabdomyolysis, Statin induced myotoxicity, the lactone forms are more potent than the acid forms in human skeletal muscle cells in vitro, Isolation of flavomannin‐6,6′‐dimethyl ether and one of its racemates from higher fungi, Comparison of skeletal muscle pathology and motor function of dystrophin and utrophin deficient mouse strains, Microbiological quality and safety of fresh cultivated and wild mushrooms commercialized in Spain, Laccase and its role in production of extracellular reactive oxygen species during wood decay by the brown rot basidiomycete, Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics, PCR Protocols, a guide to methods and applications, The effect of freezing on the sensory properties of, Heavy metals in some edible mushrooms from the Central Anatolia, Turkey, Chemical and toxicological investigations of a previously unknown poisonous European mushroom, Determination of major and trace elements in mushroom.

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